Solar energy is one of the most inexhaustible and renewable form of energy available in the nature. It can be used to generate electricity. A photovoltaic array generates electricity from solar energy. The output of a solar cell highly depends on the concentrated solar irradiance and the operating temperature. This is the main disadvantage of the PV generation so; it has to be operated at maximum power point mode, so that maximum power can be extracted at any time. In bad weather conditions or in the night there is no output from a PV array so, it must be accommodated with some energy storage elements so that in such conditions the electricity continuous to the load. In this paper, a fuel cell is used to supply power when power available from the PV cell is not enough to feed the load. The power available from the hybrid system can be used to supply the local load as well as to power grid. There are two modes of operation of the hybrid system, one is grid connected mode and second is islanded mode. Both mode switches depending upon the requirement and availability of the power at certain time of the day. This arrangement increases the flexibility of the overall system in addition to the improved performance and high efficiency.
Rinku Kumar, Akanksha Aggarwal, Rohit Saini, Vijay Kumar. Photovoltaic array and fuel cell based hybrid microgrid. National Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2018, Pages 383-388