Media & Culture: A theoretical perspective of the inter-relationship
Media, as a powerful social system, plays an important role in creating a person’s sense of reality (Gergen, 1999). It proved to be influential on the belief that in its wider cultural sense, the media largely reinforced those values and norms which had already achieved a wide consensual foundation. The complimentary and independent media are the most substantial requirements for the utility of democracy (Bajohr, 2006). The mass media are less effective in this process if they use a hostile perception and more powerful when "persuasive press inferences" (Gunther & Christen 2002). The persuasive press inference depicts that individuals frequently presume public opinion from perceptions of the content of media coverage, and assumptions regarding the content that have considerable influence on people (Gunther, Christen, Liebhart, & Chia 2001). Culture is learned and transmitted from generation to generation. It “is an integrating mechanism” (Geertz, 1973; Schein, 1983), the social or normative glue that holds together a potentially diverse group of organisational members. Culture is manifested at different layers of depth and the culture of a particular group or organisation is desirable to distinguish three fundamental levels at which culture manifests itself: (a) observable artifacts, (b) values, and (c) basic underlying assumptions (Schein, 1984). Culture is learned, not inherited. The source of new cultural elements in a society may also be another society. The cultural elements of one culture borrowed and incorporated in recipient culture are called diffusion. The processes of diffusion and acculturation bring some kind of cultural changes or shift in the culture. Sometimes diffusion is due to intermediate contact that occurs through the third party. Mass media has a political and a persuasive power over us. Radio, TV, the 'press' etc. can manipulate whole societies. Political propaganda, advertising and the so-called 'mind-bending' power of the media are long-standing causes of debate and concern. Media has a great effect on our social behaviour which is a part of our culture. The study assessed various ways of effect of mass media on culture like cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and psychological. The study aimed to elucidate the importance of media, culture and their relationship and influence over each other.