In vitro Cytotoxicity Studies and Qualitative Investigation of Phytochemicals of Stem Bark Extracts of Detarium microcarpum (Caesalpinioideae), Echinaceae angustifolia (Compositae) and Isoberlinia doka (Fabaceae)
Abdu Zakari, Dimas Kubmarawa
Detarium microcarpum (Caesalpinioideae), Echinaceaernangustifolia (Compositae) andIsoberlinia dokarn(Fabaceae) were selected in this study on the bases of their uses in Folkrnmedicine by Lala tribe of Adamawa State - Nigeria to cure Jaundice, malaria andrnHeadache diseases. Extracts prepared by soxhelet extraction with hot methanolrnfrom the plant were macerated and screened for the presence of secondaryrnmetabolites and activity in the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach)rnlethality test (BST). In the phytochemical screening, n-hexane extracts of thernstem barks showed the presence of few secondary metabolites with the methanolrnextracts indicating the presence of most of the secondary metabolites. Extractrnof the stem barks of Detarium microcarpum, Echinaceae angustifolia andIsoberliniarndoka exhibited high lethality on brine shrimp larvae with LC50 =rn158.49μg/ml, 316.23μg/ml and 70.8μg/ml respectively. The leaves extractsrnexhibited a moderate potent activity at LC50 = 436.5 μg/ml. Maximumrnmortalities occurred at 1000μg/ml concentration while the least mortalitiesrnhappened to be at 65.5μg/ml concentration. The results of both tests confirmrnthat Detarium microcarpum, Echinaceae angustifolia andIsoberliniarndoka are toxic and hence not safe especially at uncontrolled high dose.